The expressions "esprit de corps," "morale," "spiritedoutfit," "crack unit," and "elite troops" all bear witnessto the fact that there is more to an armed force thanorganization, equipment, and tactics. A good outfitpossesses this additional, though intangible, asset. Allarmies make great attempts to develop it.For the attainment of this quality in an army, goodleadership is known to be an essential factor, but it is notenough. All modern armies, in varying degrees, recognizethis fact by using definite policies to inculcate good morale.The following sections set out some of the detailed methodsemployed for this purpose in the armies of Great Britain,Russia, Japan, Italy, and Germany. These methods canbe treated topically, rather than by countries, for thoughthere are many factors that contribute to army morale,certain elements stand out and are stressed in all effortsto deal with the problem. No attempt has been made,however, to evaluate the actual state of morale in thevarious armies discussed, or the efficacy of the methodsused to promote it.For the methods used in the U. S. Army, referenceshould be made to Mobilization Regulations No. 1-10,"Morale" (June 12, 1942), and Technical Manual 21-205,"Special Service Officer" (May 12, 1942).